横尾忠則

YOKOO Tadanori

ラッピング電車の第五号案「ターザン」など

写真 2011
The fifth proposal of train car decoration “Tarzan’and others, Photos, 2011

暗黒舞踏派ガルメラ商会

オフセット印刷 1965
“A LA MAISON DE M CIVEÇAWA”, Offset printing, 1965

横尾忠則には、検閲に関わる二つの表現がある。

一つめは、横尾が2004年の第一号「見る見る速い」より取り組んできたラッピング電車の第五号案「ターザン」が、2011年にJR西日本から採用を拒絶されたこと。同社が2005年の尼崎JR脱線事故を鑑み、「ターザンの叫ぶ姿が脱線事故の被害者と重なるという声が出かねない」と憂慮したためだ。

彼は大衆文化や消費文化を意匠に取り入れた、ポップなスタイルで知られる。往年の映画のジャングルの王者は多くの人の心を傷つけるだろうか。

もう一つは、2012-2013年のニューヨーク近代美術館(MoMA)での「TOKYO 1955-1970:新しい前衛」展で起こった。彼の演劇や映画のポスターに用いられた「朝日」が、旧日本軍の旭日旗(自衛隊も使用中)を思わせる軍国主義的なものと在米韓国系市民団体「日本戦犯旗退出市民の会」が抗議を行った。彼がこれを本格的に用いたのは1964年出版の絵本『日本民話グラフィック』で、アサヒビールの商標「波に朝日」から着想を得た。「朝日」は浮世絵でもしばしば用いられた。伝統意匠の使用例の一つに日本軍旗があるという問題の難しさがある。

芸術作品は突飛な発想や膨大な知識の蓄積を持つため、市民からの十分な理解を得られないときもある。芸術の送り手は、作るものと見るものとのこのギャップを埋める義務がある。前者の事例ではJR西日本はリスクを怖れない姿勢ともしことあらば粘り腰の市民説得の姿勢が必要であったろうし、後者では(軍国主義的な意図はないというずれたものでなく)MoMAは日本文化と横尾の作品背景の十分な説明に務めるべきだったろう。作品の尊厳を守る責任である。(アライ=ヒロユキ)

YOKOO Tadanori has two projects associated with censorship.

The first case was the train car decoration he had designed from the first proposal Miru miru hayai (means speedy in Japanese expression) in 2004, however, was rejected the fifth proposal titled Tarzan by West Japan Railway Company in 2011. In concern of the derailment accident that occurred in Amagasaki in 2005, the company worried “the image of the loudly shouting Tarzan may invoke the victims of the derailment accident.”

YOKOO is renowned for his pop and colorful style incorporating pop culture and consumer-driven culture in his works. It is questionable whether the lord of the jungle as the classic movie icon would really hurt everyone’s heart.

The second case occurred at the exhibition Tokyo 1955-1970: A New Avant-Garde at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 2013. The graphics he designed for theater and film posters featuring the “rising sun” were claimed by Korean citizen organizations in America to resemble kyokujitsuki(Rising Sun Flag), used by the Imperial Japanese Army (currently used by the Japanese Self-Defence Forces) and evoke militarism. YOKOO started featuring the design in a picture book published in 1964 titled Nihon minwa graphic(Japanese Folktale graphic art), inspired from the graphic design of Asahi’s packing of Nami ni asahi (rising sun and waves). The rising sun motifs have been repeatedly featured in ukiyoe (Japanese wood block print rooted in pre-modern age) as well. The complexity lies in the fact that among the many usages of the traditional design, the Japanese military flag has become one of them.

Works of art are not always fully understood by citizens, as they are supposed to embody bizarre inspirations and connote stupendous accumulations of knowledge. Those who stand on the side to deliver the art are obliged to fill in these gaps between the viewer and the creator. As for the former example, West Japan Railway Company were ought to not worry too much of risks, and were supposed to show the attitude of fully communicating with the citizens in case anything would have happened. In the latter case, MoMA should have adequately explained the background of the Japanese culture and YOKOO’s works (and not make a tangent reply that the artist had no intentions of militarism). Those are the responsibilities of securing the dignitiy of the works. (ARAI Hiroyuki)